Looking at the world through a windshield

 A Migratory Expedition Southward

Winter in the Rockies is a long season. Even in the southern Rockies cold and snow can be expected for a long six months. Staying mostly indoors sitting by the fire has it’s comforts but can also lead to stagnation. Mental, physical and creative abilities begin to deteriorate without some sort external influence. There are remedies, such as old and new authors to read, taking up a new hobby can be helpful, attending social gatherings, visiting a museum or art gallery can be inspirational or perhaps attending a lecture could break a cycle of repetitive winter drudgery. Another option would be travel. Visiting a new city or taking a cruise can lead to adventures not imagined. Migratory birds nullified the effects of a winter season long ago. They travel to southern climates.

The snow started to fall at the Lower Farm in October this year. Temperatures have been below freezing, new snows fall every month. Mid January I started formulating a plan. I was accomplishing nothing as to construction improvements or landscaping projects. An expedition was in order. I would be driving south for a distance I’d not attempted in quite awhile.


Leaving Las Vegas, New Mexico driving east through Santa Rosa, Tucumcari and on to Amarillo, Wichita Falls, Dallas, Texas; Shreveport, Louisiana; Jackson, Mississippi; Mobile, Alabama; Pensacola, Florida to Tallahassee where the road begins to turn south towards my destination of Fort, Myers, Florida on the Gulf Coast.

1900 miles of looking at the world through a windshield. The high plains and last sight of any mountains or hills, the prairie of west Texas sprouting hundreds of new wind turbines, herds of cattle, metropolitan islands of dense population, scrub woodlands, the vast Atchafalaya Basin of swamp and bogs, east of Pensacola a wake of devastation left after hurricane Michael, where 1000s and 1000s of pine trees are snapped and toppled. Broken. Lake City, Florida is my entrance to the north/south corridor of Interstate 75. Besides the areas around large cities, Florida’s I-75 had the most traffic I’d encountered in over a thousand miles. Around Tampa I noticed the temperature had risen significantly. At last warmth, real warmth in the upper 70s. Finally… Sweetwater Landing Marina on the Caloosahatchee River where my brother resides on a boat. I’ll be there the next month and a half as winter wanes.

The day after arrival I stripped down to shorts and T-shirt. No socks or shoes, no sweater, winter coat, hat or gloves. The sun kisses bare bleached skin. It’s wonderful. Migratory birds have the right idea. A change in climate does the body good.

While here I won’t be reposed on a beach blanket all day. This is an expedition afterall. Everglades National Park is on a high priority to explore. Not as dramatic as Yellowstone or the Tetons but an ecology found nowhere else on Earth. Tremendous amounts of water flow in a sheet across miles of flat terrain.A sea of grass they call it. Cypress swamps, mangrove swamps, bogs and marshes are a habitat for birds, fish, reptiles and insects that have adapted to an environment of shallow flowing waters. Once rested I’m excited to explore.

Meanwhile my feet are so happy not to be encased in thick socks and heavy boots. Living on a boat you are pretty close to being outdoors all the time. It is so pleasant not to be encumbered with the weight of winter.

For now, Adios.


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A Composition on Decomposition

Exploring an Eastern Woodland

Healthy woodlands play an important part of maintaining biodiversity in the environment. They provide a habitat for all manner of species, flora and fauna. If that woodland dies off, from natural causes or removed by man, then the birds, bees, mammals, varieties of ferns and mosses must all establish new colonies, if such places exist. Healthy forests are important for all.


How do forest soils provide enough nutrients to support such a quantity of trees over the years?

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Leaf litter, twigs and pieces of bark that fall to the forest floor accumulate as organic matter. Within months this litter begins to become part of the soil during the process of decomposition.

Decomposition is the process of decay that takes place when a living thing changes chemically after dying.

Decomposition in soils is a key ecosystem function that in part determines the productivity and health of the plants that grow there.


There are thousands of types single celled fungi and bacteria in the soil. When an organism dies, fungi and bacteria begin breaking it down into its simplest components: carbon dioxide, water and nutrients.  As rot sets in on these organisms insects, worms and other invertebrates inhabit the organism and aid in the decomposition. This process of decomposition releases large quantities of essential nutrients to the soil solution, thereby making them available to plant roots.

There was a time in Earth’s distant past when organic matter did not rot. The Carboniferous Period (358.9 million yrs. ago – 298.9 million yrs. ago) was a time when fantastic trees with delicate fern like leaves and pencil thin trunks grew to 160′ tall in dense swamp forests. Vast areas of the landmass EuroAmerica was covered in marsh and swamp, the air warm and humid. Plants gave off so much oxygen into the atmosphere that plants, insects and animals reached sizes not known in today’s atmosphere.

At that distant time bacteria, fungi and microorganisms that initiate decomposition of organic matter did not exist. Microbes that could ingest lignin and cellulose – key wood eaters – had yet to evolve. The result was that as leaf litter accumulated and trees died and fell they remained intact. They did not rot. All this dead material piled over the other in damp swamps. Dead material would compress from the weight piled above, and be submerged in the moist soils eventually turning to peat. Heat and pressure compressed the mud and carbon holding matter over millions of years. When dead matter builds up faster than the rate of decay, layers of organic carbon become natural gas, oil, coal.

If bacteria had been around devouring wood they would have broken carbon bonds, releasing carbon and oxygen into the air, but instead the carbon stayed in the fibers of the wood. Ninety percent of all coal mined on Earth today is from deposits formed in the Carboniferous Period.

The Carbon Cycle begins with plants. In the presence of sunlight, green plants combine carbon dioxide from the air with water. This process (photosynthesis) creates the simple sugar glucose, nothing more than carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. The glucose and other sugars are the fuel for building plant structure, plant growth and reproduction. When plants die, carbon and other nutrients stay in the fibers. The stored carbon is released back into the atmosphere through a chemical reaction after death. Decomposition releases carbon into the air, soil and water. Living things capture this liberated carbon to build new life. This is the Carbon Cycle.

The release of carbon dioxide from soil has global implications. It occurs in ecosystems worldwide and contributes significantly to the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a natural property of the atmosphere in which greenhouse gases prevent the transfer of heat from the Earth’s surface to outer space. A warming atmosphere will lead to a cascade of environmental impacts. Impacts such as global warming, sea level rise, alteration of precipitation patterns and increased storm activity can be expected. The rapid increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere began at the time of the industrial revolution. Coal and other fossil fuels are a convenient source of energy but when burned, the stored carbon is released into the atmosphere. This alters the balance of the carbon cycle and is changing the Earth’s climate.

Decomposition is a biological process carried out by bacteria and fungi. Bacteria and fungi are very sensitive to temperature. Colonies of microorganisms will face unknown threats in a warming environment. Climate change will also affect decomposition rates. As precipitation patterns are altered to very dry or very wet conditions, decomposition rates will decrease.

The meltdown of the nuclear reactor core at the Chernobyl power plant on the 26th of April, 1986 was an environmental disaster that had never been seen before. Because of high radiation levels an exclusion zone was established around the epicenter and the reactor was covered with a concrete dome in an attempt at containment. It wasn’t just people, animals and trees that were affected by radiation exposure at Chernobyl, but also decomposers: insects, microbes and fungi.

Scientists and researchers continue to study the compounding effects on the environment within the exclusion zone. What they have found is a significant accumulation of forest litter. This poses a fire threat that could spread contaminated material to a far wider area. Scientists have also noted that there has been very little plant decay in the 20 to 30 years after the disaster. Trees are not rotting. Studies are now being done at Fukushima in Japan to see if similar conditions with decomposers are evident.

The carbon cycle is so tightly tied to plant life that the growing season can be seen by the way carbon dioxide fluctuates in the atmosphere. In the northern hemisphere during winter, when few plants are growing and many are decaying, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations climb. During the spring, when plants start growing again, concentrations drop.


The intricate bonds that bind the of the web of life are beyond my imagination. In our solar system there is nothing like it. A small blue marble in the darkness of space. Everything needed to support life is here. Nature has filled every niche with life. Even in death nature has provided a  way to recycle elements that induce new life. Decomposition plays a vital role in keeping a balance of Earth’s natural systems and cycles. In death there is life.

Human activity is disrupting the Earth’s systems of balance with dire consequences. I encourage all to learn more about the web of life, the environment and the ecosystems that exist where you live. Learn to love the planet.

Aloha, Dohn

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Art in Saddlery

Western Americana

I had a horse when I was three years old. It was pure white with a thick molded mane and flowing tail. The reins were red and the saddle blue. I don’t remember where my young imagination took me on that rocking white horse but I loved to sit in the saddle and ride, ride, ride.

Recently I rescued an old western saddle from under a pile of used auto parts, old blankets, discarded clothing and other detritus. Only the saddlehorn was showing. I tugged and pulled, pushed junk aside and finally got it free. The stirrups and some straps were missing and mice had chewed away some of the skirt. The saddle was too far gone to incur the cost of repair and too worn to ever sit astride a horse again. Although in poor condition the saddle and remaining cinch is entirely covered with an intricately carved floral pattern. An interesting western artifact. I dragged it home.

Later that afternoon a neighbor stopped by to visit and I showed him my latest find, which was still sitting on the porch. He agreed that the carving was done by a master of saddlery and noted my enthusiasm for getting the saddle cleaned and oiled for display. The next morning the same neighbor showed up at my porch with a saddle slung over his shoulder. I had this old saddle out in the barn, he said, and thought you might like it. Now I have two saddles, each different but equally interesting.

I’m fascinated by the art in saddlery. The intricate hand carved floral patterns, stamped geometric designs and artful precision stitching are simply amazing. The addition of silver conchos and other decorative elements make custom saddles a true work of art.

Searching the internet for retail saddle and tack stores I was able to compare prices for different saddles. A basic English saddle or simple Western saddle can be had for as low as $250 to $300 dollars. A fancy custom saddle like this one, is in the $3,000 dollar range.

Leatherwork has been practiced since prehistoric times. Animal hides, an available resource through the ages, have been used as shelter, clothing, footwear, household furniture and an array of mechanical and industrial components. There is a vast difference between a tradesman who works in leather and an artisan who practices leathercraft. One will produce items of leather that are functional and durable. The other, the artisan will create things of beauty using curiosity, skill, imagination and a thorough knowledge of materials and tools to be used. Compare the art of a Native American wedding dress complete with beaded moccasins or a pair of fine Italian shoes – to what? Artistic quality stands above all others.

The earliest known saddles were little more than a padded cloth held in place with a girth strap used by the Assyrian cavalry about 700 BC. The Scythians developed a leather saddle (500 – 400 BC) that included padding and embellishments such as elaborate sewing, leatherwork, precious metals, carved wood and horn. Saddles had become a way to display wealth and status. Saddles continued to evolve per country and region. Design also evolved to meet specific needs for hunting, travel and for military purposes. The saddle eventually branched off into two distinct designs, the modern English and Western saddles.

The Western saddle or stock saddle that we know today is an evolved version of the Spanish vaquero’s working saddle. As working cowboys used their saddles, they underwent a gradual change to meet the demands of life in the old west. Today you can find saddles that match their intended use. There are ranch saddles, trail or pleasure riding saddles, saddles for rodeo events like roping, cutting, barrel racing and many other types.

This particular saddle with a relatively wide seat, well positioned cantle at the back and good sweep to the pommel in front would provide some comfort to a rider who might be in the saddle all day. It would be suitable for long trail rides or inspecting miles and miles of fence line in a day. It appears that this saddle was double rigged, that is it would have a cinch strap fore and aft and indicated by the extra slot near the front of the fender there was probably a chest strap at one time. All of this would have had elaborate carving as does the rest of the saddle. Specialty leather carving knives in the hands of an artist were used to create the overall flowing floral patterns. A thing of beauty.

The other saddle I now have, the one given to me by a friend, is a working saddle once used for herding and rounding up livestock.The high cantle and pommel would keep a rider firmly centered in the saddle while making quick turns or sudden stops. This old saddle had seen a lot of use in it’s day.

Parts of this saddle have been replaced or repaired. The horn for instance has been wrapped in new leather. Probably due to continuous use of dallying a rope around the horn while lassoing steers and horses. The stirrups appear to have been replaced at some time. The adjustment to length would originally have had buckles. Now they are permanently set to the leg length of the former owner with rawhide lacing. The carved stirrup leather does not match with any other decoration and is surely a replacement.

I’d say the decoration on this saddle falls into the category of folk art. The artwork was done by someone with a creative spirit that wanted to personalize this favored item. While cleaning and oiling this saddle I discovered something special. On one of the straps, probably scratched in with a jackknife is the name Romero. This is the same family name as the man who built my 150 year old adobe house and the following generations that lived here. This saddle may have belonged to my former neighbor Jesus’ Romero or his father Jacinto or maybe even his grandfather.

The decorative artwork on this saddle was not done with a leather carving knife but stamped with a metal die. The artist repeats a modified heart design at different places around the saddle. A rough heart shape cut from leather was added as a concho placed above the original leather circle conchos. Was the artist having romantic notions or in love when he created this art? We will never know. Another design element was the application of silvery tacks outlining the stamped hearts and across the top of the pommel and cantle. These tacks did not last and are long gone but the holes left by them indicate the artists intent.

I’m proud to have inherited these saddles. The one has a direct connection with the Lower Farm. The other is a piece of Western Americana. Both harken back to a time when horseback was the primary mode of transportation in these mountains and valleys. They will never be ridden into the mountains again.

As a piece of art it would be impractical to hang a saddle on my wall. Instead I plan to build a wooden barrel shaped stand with sturdy legs for each. When visitors stop by they can be used as alternative seating western style and a guest can let their imagination transport them where it may, which is the purpose of much art.

Happy Trails, Dohn



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Where did the breadbox go?

Found in an old cabin

In American kitchens of the 1940s and 50s, in nearly every home, a breadbox sat on the countertop. I know in ours it did, as well as every neighbor, friend and family. Ours disappeared from the kitchen about 1961, never to be replaced.


Metal breadbox.  Manufacturer’s mark – none.

Circa: 1940 – 1960

Painted metal box divided by shelf into two compartments, each with a hinged door. Above the shelf the door opens upward, lower portion opens downward. At the shelf partition height the upper  half of box slopes backward at a 45 degree angle. Exterior sides painted yellow,  interior and front background off-white with bluebell flowers and wheat stalks as decoration. On each side are two circular patterns made of holes drilled by a small bit.

Size:  Length- 13″   Height – 11″    Depth at base – 11″    Depth at top – 7″

Use: bread storage/preservation. (For best humidity level about two loaves.)

Popular in the U.S. before preservatives and plastic wrap a good breadbox would:

  • Keep the contents at room temperature – prolong edible storage time.
  • Have a lid loose enough to allow air flow, reduce condensation – helps prevent mold.
  • Have a lid tight enough to keep out insect pests and mice.

Stale Bread – Stalling is a process when starch in contact with naturally occurring water in bread causes a retrogradation where the starch turns crystalline – enhanced by cool temperatures/refrigeration. Not to be confused with dry bread.

Early 1900s and before there was no way to preserve bread once it had been cut. In 1928 Otto Rohwedder invented the first machine to slice bread. The machine also wrapped the loaf in wax paper. In the late 1930s Wonder Bread invented it’s own bread slicing/wrapping machine. By the 1950s , Wonder Bread with the red, yellow and blue balloon packaging, enriched white flour and added preservatives was nationally recognized as an industry leader. Turns out all the extra preservatives and plastic wrapping are not good for people – or the planet.

There has been a renewed interest in fresh bread. Particularly for local bakeries in ethnic neighborhoods. Fresh bread is an integral part of the new cuisine internationally. Artisanal breads are now on the menu of fine dining establishments, popular at boutique coffee shops and available in some super markets. Marianne Rohlich wrote in April 2001 an article about kitchen technology: “Fresh bread with great crust and moist interior is back. The reason for a bread box is clear: Store one of those beautiful loaves in a plastic bag and it will turn into a tough hunk of foam overnight…..But left in a paper bag on the counter; it will dry out in a day or so. Bread has to breath for the crust to stay crisp, that is why it is suffocated in a plastic bag or the refrigerator.”

So where did the breadbox go? It was overruled by preservatives and plastic packaging. Are they making a comeback? There are a lot of rustic, retro and modern models available on line. Personally I don’t see where most folks have any space amongst the coffee pot, toaster, grinder, mixer, blender; et. al. for a breadbox on the counter. One thing though; the breadbox has no electric cord. It uses zero power. It just sits there and does what it was designed to do, keep bread fresh.

Breaking bread together can make friendships last. – Old Flemish saying.

Happy Trails, Dohn

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A Season of Crystals

For The Beauty Of The Earth

From under obscured skies and clouds small crystals drift down to land softly and settle into growing mounds of white. Green pine and fir stand in contrast whilst bending boughs cushion the accumulating tiny crystals. Even a tiny snowflake has weight. Multiplied by a thousand million times the weight of winter is upon us.

The winter hare, ermine and snowy owl are in an advantageous habitat now, primed and ready to pounce. For all the different species there is a habitat and place on Mother Earth. The crystal snows will melt, they surely will. The waters moistening the soil, migrating underground to meet the Rio Morphy and flow to the Mora and Canadian rivers onward to the sea.

Each season has its time and beauty. Spring with emerging colorful flora and the tender unfurling leaves of trees, summer’s green with growing things, autumn’s gold and fruitful harvest, winter’s white with longest nights, all is beauty if we look just right.

Mother Earth provides for us, Father Sun shines down. The rocks and rivers, the mountains and the seas are full of life if we but look around. Please help us to maintain a balance with the earth and its varied seasons. Help protect all species from the very grand in size to the very very small. There is a delicate web of life to preserve.

For the beauty of the earth, sing all, sing all praise.

Aloha, Dohn


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Wood heat at the Lower Farm

“In winter we lead a more inward life. Our hearts are warm and cheery, like cottages under drifts, whose windows cheerfully ascends….We enjoy now, not an oriental, but a boreal leisure, around warm stoves and fireplaces, and watch the shadow of motes in the sunbeams.”   Henry David Thoreau

At the Lower Farm I heat with wood. It’s how it’s always been here. For over a hundred years, families at this old house have been heating water, cooking and staying warm by burning wood. It’s no different now.

Firewood is a local, low cost resource that  is sometimes free. Wood heat may be cost efficient –  but it is labor intensive. Gathering wood and maintaining a fire for six months is a year long process.


Autumn is my favorite time of year for wood cutting. The temperature is cooler and more comfortable for physical work. The beauty of the turning leaves and changing season makes any day in the forest a healthful plus grounding experience. I’m especially fortunate to have not only a wood lot but the national forest, which is within two miles from the house. For 20 dollars I can get a permit from the Forest Service to cut 5 cords of dead or down wood. During winter months I burn one cord of wood per month. I’m sure lots of folk would like to have a heating bill of $30 or $40 for the year.


Harvesting wood is hard work, it’s dangerous and there are tool costs involved. A truck, axe and chainsaw are essential. Safety must always be a consideration. For Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) I use a helmet with noise reduction ear muffs and a full face, mesh shield. On my legs are chaps that the fabric will bind a moving chain on contact and stop the chain saw, preventing cutting (off) a leg. I wear gloves and on the bottom end are steel toe work boots. Safety First! Swinging a chainsaw around is no time to be careless.

When cutting I always plant my feet firmly. I clear any brush or branches on which I may stumble. I also will most importantly have a clear escape path planned if a tree twists and turns while falling. Even trees on the ground can roll and crush a hand or foot. Safety First folks.


Harvesting wood is only one part of the year long process. Once home it needs to be unloaded, split and stacked. There are plenty of gas powered hydraulic wood splitters on the market these days. I’m using the old fashioned method of swinging a splitting maul. I do a little bit at a time. I actually enjoy going out to the woodpile early on a brisk winters morning under a brilliant blue sky. Working for about an hour splitting and stacking is good exercise. Afterwards I can enjoy a hearty breakfast fixed up on the wood burning cookstove. They say that wood will heat you thrice. Once when you are cutting, once when you are splitting and once when you are burning. True enough.

When purchasing or cutting firewood It is good to know the difference between hardwoodIMG_7781 and softwood. Hardwood is ideal to foster a long low burn and maintain a hot bed of coals. Soft wood in contrast burns hot and fast. Softwood is often said to be dangerous because it generates more creosote. All woods create creosote. This myth is repeated most often in the northern Atlantic states where tall species of oak and maple are common.

IMG_8430 In western states where pine and fir forests dominate the myth is seldom heard. Wood cutters use the resource at hand. So called dangerous woods like pine are in fact safer than woods such as oak , as they will burn hotter and thus keep the flue temperature up. This myth may have originated with old fashioned stoves and fireplaces that burned inefficiently. Modern stoves when operated properly do not cause this high level of creosote accumulation.

Fireplace inserts and metal stoves were first used in France in the late 17th century. In the United States, Benjamin Franklin invented a metal stove in 1741. It was made of metal plates held together with bolts and was intended to produce more heat and less smoke than a typical fireplace. The original stove functioned poorly and was never popular but after improvements Franklin stoves are still in use today. During the 1800s there were a variety of wood stoves available to the public. There were iron cookstoves, pot belly stoves, parlor stoves with lots of nickel accents and large stoves to heat market stores and businesses. In rural areas wood stoves remained in use up to the 1950s when popularity declined and other options became more available.

Wood cookstoves are a versatile appliance. They can heat a room, cook food and heat water. Early models were manufactured of mostly cast iron construction. Later models retained the cast firebox and cooktop but have lighter materials for the remainder using a protective and attractive porcelain finish. Porcelain is resistant to heat and wear of everyday use plus it is easily kept clean.

All cookstoves, no matter when manufactured, have a similar design. There is an enclosed firebox of heavy cast material with a grate at the bottom that allows ash to collect in a pan beneath. Access to add fuel is at the front and side or top of the stove. Air intake is provided through a grill on the side of the stove near the fire. The grill can be slid open or closed to control the air/fuel  mixture. Exhaust smoke travels across the top of the oven box and exits out a flue. A sliding damper on the back of the stove regulates the outgoing draft thus retaining more heat in the stove.

Depending on size, the stovetop has 4 or 6 removable plates that can induce more direct heat to a pot or pan. I seldom use this method because of the mess from possible soot accumulation on pan bottoms. Some stoves are equipped with a water reservoir. A galvanized tank can hold about 12 gallons of readily available warm water. A nice feature when there is no indoor plumbing. Most stoves have a shelf above the cooktop. Some have warming ovens. Warming ovens are small metal cabinets with doors. This warming cabinet replaces the simple shelf. The warming oven gets plenty hot above the cooktop next to the flue pipe. It can be used to keep foods warm or do a slow bake.

When the electricity goes out, as it often does, I’m not hampered in preparing a hot meal. On cold snowy days the heat is a welcome benefit.


“Age appears to be best in four things, – Old wood best to burn, old wine to drink, old friends to trust and and old authors to read.”   Alonso of Aragon

Next to the fire the heat is warming your body, calming your nerves and emptying your mind of worry. Meditate.

A wood stove offers a degree of independence. Having wood heat can release the pressure of being under the thumb of the electric company (with it’s intermittent power, often in the worst of weather conditions) or the propane company with it’s variable prices.

There is satisfaction in providing for ones own needs. One develops an active relationship with the environment when using wood heat. Bonds with nature are strengthened. Arms and back are strengthened also. Heating with wood is difficult work and needs dedication. Maintaining a fire 24 hours a day for 5 or 6 months requires commitment. If the resources of wood, strength and dedication are at hand, it’s worth a go. In some instances it’s a necessity for staying warm. There is a legacy of wood heat at the Lower Farm that goes back generations. It’s all there is. It’s how it’s always been.

There is no finer warmth than that of a blazing fire.

Stay warm and healthy, Dohn

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A unique American invention – the apple parer

Found in an old cabin

In mid 1850s America, a growing middle class sought out new mechanical aides and labor-saving machines for the home. The birth of American industry saw a proliferation of these mass produced items made of cast iron with interchangeable parts. The apple peeler below was the first labor-saving machine invented by David Goodell.


Circa: 1861 – 1901

“White Mountain” apple parer/corer. Made by: Goodell Co., Antrim, New Hampshire. 

Cast steel frame with thumbscrew for clamping to table. Threaded shaft with three prongs on end. Turned by a crank with wooden handle. Swiveling cutter with blade.

Raised cast letters on horizontal frame member: White Mountain Apple.

Raised cast letters on vertical frame member: 3 Made by Goodell Co. Antrim, N.H. USA

The first four decades of the 19th century apple parers were mostly made of wood by artisans for local communities. The Shakers of Massachusetts produced lovely wooden apple peelers. The invention and proliferation of cast iron apple peelers coincided when orchards were transitioning from planting with seed to grafted varieties.

The “White Mountain” apple peeler is an example of the genius of Yankee ingenuity.

Happy Trails, Dohn

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